Bread toasting

Bread is the most consuming foods and has critical position in the consumer foods in world because of its nutritional aspects energy providing and food habits.

The primary electric toaster was undoubtedly imagined in 1905, which is the year Albert Marsh built up the Nichrome wire, making the electric toaster conceivable. Throughout the year's toaster sizes, shapes and components changed yet the outcome is the cooking of bread items.

Since the 2000s, pop-up toasters with more extensive openings have been produced, empowering these toasters to toast bagels and English biscuits cut down the middle.

A pleasant flavour and colour are produced when slices of wheat bread are toasted, corresponding to the organoleptic characteristics of bread crust. The chemical reactions involved in this process are essentially the Maillard reaction and caramelization.

During heating, a complex reaction occurs between the proteins and sugar contained in the bread. This is known as the Maillard reaction, and it produces the typical flavour known from toasted bread as well as the colour formed as the bread toasts.

Maillard reactions are favored in systems with an intermediate moisture content, temperatures above 50 °C and pH 4.7 (i.e. in the pH range of food), producing changes in colour (melanoidins), flavour (aldehydes and ketones), functional properties and nutritional value (blocking or destruction of lysine).
Bread toasting
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FOOD SCIENCE AND HUMAN NUTRITION